Brexit, Trump and the Resurgence of Liberalism.

Photographer: Chris Ratcliffe/Bloomberg via Getty Images

2016 was the year of two major events that would change two nations and the world as we knew it. In Britain, just over 50 percent of voters, in a referendum, voted in favour of leaving the European Union. The Vote Leave camp used blatant lies and fear as a tool to persuade people to their side, garnering huge media coverage with their divisive slogans and divisive characters. The Remain side lacked energy, slogans and the characters that would be required to rally the public to their side and keep Britain within the European Project. The main underlying problem for the remain campaign, was it’s refusal to accept how frustrated Britons had become at the EU and how years of austerity had created a hunger for change.

Europe has been rocked by the referendum in Britain and soon enough we will know if a deal is agreed in the House of Commons (British Parliament) as we await Theresa May to put the Brexit Agreement to a vote. An earlier vote was pulled in December 2018 as the Prime Minister did not have enough support within her own party or in Parliament to win. Britain will crash out of Europe on March 29th if a deal is not reached or an extension is not granted. A no deal scenario could be bad news for the European Union and other Global economies and even worst news for the Island of Ireland as a possible hard border could be erected, in breach of the good Friday agreement. The Good Friday Agreement brought peace to the island following decades of the violence in Northern Ireland. This period in Northern Ireland, known as The Troubles is extremely complicated and embedded in the history of those who live there.

On the other side of the pond, in the United States, Donald Trump was elected to the office of President. Trump had beaten Hilary Clinton. Clinton, simply as a name, is one of the most famous political names in the United States. The differences between Trump and Clinton are; Trump lacks the capabilities, knowledge, temperament and political experience that Clinton has. During the 2016 election, Trump lost the popular vote but The United States has a system in which the popular vote means nothing in terms of being elected, therefor Trump won the election because he won enough States which had the most electoral colleges. and reached the magic number of 270.

Trump has imposed tariffs on China and other goods from other nations. He had pulled the United States out of the Paris Climate Agreement, rescinded on the Iran Nuclear Deal (The JCPOA) and continues to fire staff while also being under the spotlight of special Counsel Robert Mueller for collusion with Russia in the 2016 Presidential campaign. Trump and the Republican Party continue to undo much of what Barack Obama spent his 2 terms implementing. The only thing the Republicans stands for is nominating a sexual predator to the Supreme Court and undoing Obama policies, other than that, they have become the self serving party driving by deep ideology. On the other hand, the Democrats are in disarray, trying to understand themselves and what the heck they represent. The Democrats, like Labour in the UK are divided between the new era of left wing politics as a challenge to the far right and the old centre ground politics that Hilary Clinton and Tony Blair represented. The sooner the Democrats get their house in order the sooner they can be effective in the House of Representatives.

2019 will be a year in which the pendulum swings back, how far? only time will tell. The fight against nationalism and far right extremism is building as the resurgence of a united liberal front is taking place around the globe.

By Jonathan Myers.

Fraction. 

The rise of the far right isn’t the major worry for today’s global democracy and stability. We are now faced with the possibility of a more fractured world. We have far right candidates whom question institutions like the United Nations, the European Union, NATO and African nations are leaving the International Criminal Court. We are witnessing the roll back of a world order that has been in existence following World War One, WW2 and the Cold War. The idea of creating mutual interests to detour nations from going to war against one another. 

The world that we knew, that I grew up in has changed and will continue to change as those with completely different agendas will take over the reins of power in the major countries. 

This can be halted with a radical mobilisation of people. Senator Bernie Sanders showed exactly what can be achieved. On the 21st of January 2017, a global mobilisation of people in support of women, known as the women’s march, was a huge movement with millions of people taking to the street with plackcards, chants, poems and songs but united in representing the voices of progressive thinking. This could be a catalyst and an opposition to the fractured world we are heading toward. 

Sowed Seeds

Trump triumphs, brexit rolls on and all things in the middle are questioned. With Trump’s win in the USA, on the back of a campaign inspired by hate and division but powered bytrump the simple need of jobs, of an income, trumped the ideals of the left. The working class were left behind, that’s a fact, not only in the USA but across the globe. As society progressed on through the 80’s and the middle classes increased, people and politicians no longer had to worry about poverty or low income, they could then turn their focus on how they lived. Human rights, work life balance, yoga, new cars and other technologies.

As we entered the era of making ‘money from money’ things became a lot riskier. As the globe became interconnected through the financial markets (globalisation) what happened on one side of the word now affected the other side of the world.

The crash of 2008 shrunk the middle class, people were now less well off, in debt, behind on mortgage payments and with no disposable income for luxury good or vacations to distract them from the world’s woes, people were now forced to become politically aware and politically engaged.

Over the past 8 years of recession, with slow change and a loss of confidence in the financial policies of the neoliberals, a loss of confidence in the well established politicians and now the media, people have begun to revolt. As mentioned above, Donald Trump won the USA Presidential election and Britain have voted to separate from the European Union. Left wing and right wing parties have gained significant ground. Duterte in the Philippines, openly confessed to killing people has been pushing a new war on drugs with thousands dead in three months, killed by the police, killed by other gangs and vigilantes. Marion-Le Pen, a far right politician in France, presidential hopeful for 2017. Syriza in Greece, Podemos in Spain which has
transformed the Spanish political scene. fractured-eu

Whats next for 2017? will Europe begin to separate?
will France elect a far right President?
how about war in the South China Sea or in Eastern Europe with the build up of NATO forces in Poland. All I know is that some bad seeds have been sowed and what grows wont be good for anyone.

Manifestation of Division.

It is clear that when politicians talk about creating a middle class, what they actually mean is that by creating a middle class, they in turn create a society where the majority of the people are more concerned with the latest technology, fashion, cars and other luxurious items. This majority become depoliticized and reelect those political leaders that keep the gravy train on the tracks. This is what we now know as a stable society . Within this society, fractures begin to appear as wages flat line, growth begins to slow down and unemployment increases. At this point people begin to wake up to the fact that their lives have not been fulfilled and the only thing they have to show is negative equity, shiny watches and whitened teeth.

In 2008 when the financial system crashed, homes were repossessed, job losses were a daily occurrence and suddenly the divisions in society that were hidden beneath piles of money were revealed.

Fast forward to 2015 and the US presidential primaries/caucus begin and not only are the democrats and republicans poles apart but inside the democratic party you also have two candidates who are both supposedly on the left and yet you’d think one was a liberal republican. Senator Bernie Sanders is on the left of the political sphere and a self described Social Democrat. He campaigns for free or affordable health care and Education, higher taxes for the rich and better financial regulation. Hilary Clinton on the other hand, when she speaks, I get the same sense that she is running for the office of President for the same reasons Mitt Romney ran. Both have done so much in their lives but yet they haven’t been able to clinch the top position. Hilary, like Mitt is a careerist and she will do whatever she can to get into office. She will flip flop on policy and move to the left to increase her chances.

In the republican camp, you have an idiot called Donald J Trump. He is a failed businessman, the least innovative person Itrump.jpg have come to know, a bigoted racist who, like Hilary and Mitt only wants to be elected because
it is the highest CEO position a careerist could want. He has become the presumptive nominee for the republican party because he has played to the fears of the electorate.

Like all politicians in the Presidential Race of 2016, they have pounced on the divisions of the people, they have separated and dominated their worries, fears and hatred to try and win a political race.These hatreds have been compounded by the likes of Donald J Trump, labeling immigrants as one of the sole reasons for Americas problems. You also have politicians today, trying to reverse laws which protect those who have been marginalized i.e. The Bathroom Bill.

The fact is, these one liners hang around long after the headline in the newspapers are forgotten and are used by extremists around the world to fuel hate and violence. Each and every time hatred is shared as a view or policy position by someone who demands a lot of media attention, under the guise of freedom of speech, it builds up an manifests itself in violence. Just because some things have changed for the better it doesn’t mean everything is OK. Hate has reared it’s head many times. When coupled with lax gun laws you pay witness to such atrocities like the mass shooting which occurred at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida. This wasn’t some crazed lunatic, his hatred was influenced and compounded by the likes of the religious extremists group ISIS but also by politicians who share similar views about the LGBTQ  community. When you have elected representatives speaking out against the LGBTQ community, what you are getting isn’t only a policy position but also fuel to the fire. The reason these people are elected is because oftheir backward polices and views. The Orlando atrocity was a homophobic terror attack as described by Owen Jones on a Sky News segment to which the host refused to call it exactly what it was.

The simple fact is, capitalism as a financial system, it may be OK for some but to build your society around a financial system will only create much bigger and deeper problems down the road. What we are seeing is the rise of nationalism and patriotism (whatever they are) across Europe and North American and those who will suffer are minority groups.

What’s the solution? well one stepping stone would be for the Democrats in the USA to elect Bernie Sanders as the Nominee and for them to unite around him and defeat Donald J Trump in the general. Another move would be for the Republicans to wake up and defeat Trump internally, his success would mean that the Republicans would lose future elections. The United States as a global leader needs to be united under the leadership of a progressive like Senator Sanders and for once, not lead as an economic power but as a moral and just power.

Unseen

Well it’s been a long time since my last update.

The work below is from my current work at college. I started by reading about the Syrian conflict and the lack of material in the the newspapers here in Ireland. I began by looking to build a structure to display the articles I found in relation Syria and the refugees. I looked at structures in Syria so that the structure I build has some relation to the place I want to talk about.

Below is a Syrian Beehive house.

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With this structure, I began to try and create my own. Rather than just just build a similar one I decided to use the news articles as the building material. Below is a trial and error version of a beehive home built from newspaper.

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I used basic garden rope to hang the structure and create a frame for which I could build on. After this, I began to look at other structures from an origami book (the use of paper lead me here). The tent structure was the easiest way to go so I began with an actual tent, this was a little too obvious and far from my starting point. With this in mind, I pealed back the tent to reveal its basic frame. (See below)

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As you can see, I used washing line rope (blue rope) to hold the tent sticks together and give that tension required to bend the bars into the shape. I then used cable ties to hold the rope in place where it crosses itself.

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I used these materials becomes of their softness and minimalist look. I then took the newspaper and lay it on the ground in a formation (5,4,3,2) this created a triangle shape that was wide enough to cover the bottom and top of one side of the tent. It took 3 triangle formations to cover the entire tent shape.

I then painted the tent black so i could project a count up clock on the back and a projection of jumbled words on the left.

 

Front

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Left side

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While projecting on this side (left side) i created a rainbow effect over the shadow of the tent and on the floor, this worked out really well and was very captivating, the rainbow was a symbol of something better, something less dark the tent and what the articles represented.

The projection on the back of the structure was a cunt-up clock, it started at 000,000 and counted up to 432,164, this was the number of refugees that entered Europe in 2013, the clock took 90 minutes to count up and was on loop.

(Back projection image to be uploaded)

More images of the structure internally, showcasing useless and uninformative “news”.

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I am still working on this work, leading up to my degree show in June, this was part of the “unseen” exhibition, NCAD third year interim exhibition.

If I work really really hard, just maybe….

Recently I seen the movie ‘The Giver’ …

In a seemingly perfect community, without war, pain, suffering, differences or choice, a young boy is chosen to learn from an elderly man about the true pain and pleasure of the “real” world.

This movie is fascinating. It debates the idea of equality, brought in through a system of sameness. A community where there is no war, pain or famine. A community where people have no choice in life, from choosing their family to their careers.

In the movie, the character played by Meryl Streep says “when humans are given choices they always make the wrong ones”.

It made me think a lot about our purpose and what we do with our time. The average life in Ireland lasts 81 years. When you consider that from the ages of 4-21, which is 17 years are spent in full time education, then the average person works until the retirement age of 65. That then leaves you with 16 years of your life, that’s 44 years working full time.

What is it all for ?

when I visualise this in my head I automatically think of a conveyor belt. The start of the journey is similar for most, but the turns you take, the levels you rise and fall are determined on the situation your family are in. Most likely their financial situation. The more money they have or make the more choices that become available to you as you continue this conveyor belt journey from play school, through primary and secondary school, then into university. To be “educated”  in one of the course choices you made on your CAO application, or so you thought! The course you chose can only become available if you attained the required number of points on your leaving certificate, this can be greatly influenced by the school you attended, whether you had an option of support out side of school hours and the educational level of your parents and family at large.

So to cap, you’ve studied for a long time, to get a course you didn’t particularly want, to become “employable” to work a job/career you have zero passion for, to buy lots of overpriced material goods, properties and services. To live through a number of financial recessions only to see your pay decline, taxes increase and public services stripped to the bone, even though you’ve contributed your earnings (tax) to them over the decades.

Now at the age of 45, the income you’re bringing home after years of working hard is now equal to or less than the income you started with on day one. If you’ve been lucky to keep your pay at the level it was before then the new taxes and tax increases will have gotten you, plus you’ve to pay a lot more to use public services like the bus. Did I forget to mention that you’re in negative equity. The 350,000€ home you bought 10 years ago is now worth 265,000€ thanks to the property bubble created by a bunch of lads and some women who don’t seem to have been affected that much, they’re now back in business, buying, developing and selling.

So now you go on your way and be a good citizen, work harder, longer hours, less pay, pay more in tax for reduced services so the government can pay back the billionaires that lost money and blame it one you, the citizens.

So I ask myself again, what is it all about?

My top must watch Documentaries.

Below is a list of Documentaries that I’ve seen and recommend. They are informative and thought provoking.

1. Bitter Lake by Adam Curtis

2. No end in sight. (Critical look at the American lead invasion of Iraq).

3. The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara.

4. Chasing Ice. (A multi-year chronicle of the planet’s rapidly melting glaciers).

5. The Genius of Photography. (mutli-TV series BBC)

6. Inside Job. (An examination of the 2008 financial crises).

7. Finding Vivian Maier (Street Photographer who took over 100,000 pictures)

8. Manufacturing Consent. (Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky)

9. the shock Doctrine. (Naomi Klein)

10. Inequality for all. (Robert Reich)

11. Waiting for Superman. (An examination of the school system in the USA and its decline).

There are a lot of hours in the day, make the most of them.

Starting on Monday the 18th, I will be planning my days better. Every summer I try this and lets say, it doesn’t necessarily go to plan. The main aim is to make more of the hours in a day and to waste as few hours as possible. The main things that I’ll be trying to do more is reading and writing along with physical activity. A plan of mine is to wake up and do some exercises. Throughout the day I’ll be trying to note observations, thoughts and ideas so that come the evening/night time I can then do some reading and after that I can write up a paragraph or two summarising the day, thoughts, ideas, the book I would be reading and so on.

Of course, one cannot plan for the unknown or occasional lazy moment that creeps in but I think it shall be fun.

Wish me luck.

Marriage Equality Referendum 2015

On the 22nd of May this year, the citizens of this Republic will be asked to vote ‘YES or ‘NO’ in a marriage referendum. They will be asked if “Marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex”.

I, as a citizen of this republic and who is also a gay man will be asking my family, friends and others to vote YES on May the 22nd.

I ask those from Ireland who read this to really think about what this referendum means for all generations, for those whom have endured oppression for decades, for those currently living their life as teenagers or adults and for those beginning their life in Ireland, be it from infancy or immigration. It is about time this republic leads by actions and not wait for the rest of the world. We must treat all citizens equally.

Art, an object and a powerful tool in everyday life.

College Essay – Due Tomorrow. I thought I’d give all you bloggers a view first.

 

Art, an object and a powerful tool in everyday life.

  1. Introduction
  2. Questions

2.1    How does a Western artist working in a vulnerable region keep integrity when representing other people in their work?

2.2    Can/should artists produce politically neutral work?

2.3    What effect does being in a place over time have on the work an artist produces there?

  1. Conclusion

Art, an object and a powerful tool in everyday life.

richard mosse congo - for essay

Figure 1‘Taking Tiger Mountain, North Kivu, Eastern Congo, 2011­’

Introduction

This essay was influenced by a lecture that Richard Mosse had given in The National college of Art and Design (NCAD). The lecture was about his work that was in the Venice Biennale: The Enclave. He has also published a book called Infra, A collection of photographs taken in 2010/11 by artist, Richard Mosse. He captured the images using Kodak aerochrome, a discontinued recognisance infrared film. The images published in the book “Infra” where taken in The Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo). The Kodak aerochrome registerschlorophyll in live vegetation resulting in a very surreal landscape that appears in lush pinks and reds. Currently in Congo, war between rebel factions and the Congolese national army is ongoing. Sexual violence and child recruitment being two the big issues. In this essay, I will be asking the following questions:

How does a Western artist working in a vulnerable region keep integrity when representing other people in his or her work?

Can/should artists produce politically neutral work?

What effect does being in a place over time have on the work an artist produces there?

In this part of the essay I will pose the questions to myself and try and answer the questions or at least offer opinion and examples on them.

How does a Western artist working in a vulnerable region keep integrity when representing other people in their work?

Infra and The Enclave try to represent a place of huge divide, murder, mass rape and the recruitment of child soldiers with a unique type of film called ‘Kodak Aerochrome’. It is not easy for a western artist to produce such work, especially when he is personally disconnected from the place or problems. The photographs that Mosse has produced, are so unique in colour that they capture the eye of the viewer and inform them, to a degree of The Congo and its problems (See Figure 1 above). The uniqueness of the picture above may also distract and become a self-contained image and rather than see context all you will see is the strong pink and red colours.

During his address to the first year students in NCAD, I noted what Richard Mosse had to say about colour:

“The colour reveals the unseen” (Mosse R, 2014).

When I heard Mosse say this, I started to look at the images and wonder, without the context was the image as powerful and did it hide the atrocities that were occurring in the Congo? Such an image doesn’t show the gruesome that is the Congo. In my opinion, the colour was rather a distraction. When I looked at this image, I didn’t see the Congo as it is but rather as Mosse would like me to see it. What was happening and what has happened in the Congo was beyond new representations and especially those representations that prioritised medium over subject, the medium being the Aerochrome film and the subject being the Congo. This work has received a rather overwhelming approval from the art world and this makes you really think whether the whole project was driven by the feeling to make more people aware of The Congo and its problems or was it driven by pressure to produce something unique for a show? I simply do not know.

Can/should artists produce politically neutral work?

I put this questions to an artist and a friend of mine, Fiona Whelan. Fiona Whelan is an artist with a durational practice based in Rialto, working in collaboration with Rialto Youth Project over ten years. She is also Joint Course Coordinator of the MA Socially Engaged Art at NCAD.

Jonathan Myers:  Can an artist produce neutral work?

Fiona Whelan: I’m not neutral and I don’t claim to be so where I have chosen to position my practice and the work I make as an artist is born of my own beliefs, passions and opinions. I am motivated by a range of things and interests and by my own background, position in society, relationships, views etc. So I must accept that they all have an influence on how I see things and more than that, be willing to stand over them. I think this is the way most artists operate, it becomes personal and your work is your response and a reflection of your thought process and position on something. I’m not sure why anyone would want to make what you describe as ‘politically neutral work’. 9I’m interested in hearing if such people exist and their motivation for being neutral.

For a stand point without any subjectivity, is a standpoint with no point of view – which is to say, no standpoint at all (Levinson, JL, 1998)

I do think, as an artist, there can be times where we question what we are doing, especially when doing things like, ‘socially conscious art’ ‘political art’ and ‘personal representations’. In the case of the above image (Taking Tiger Mountain, North Kivu, Eastern Congo, 2011, figure 1­) it seems that this image is just an image and it doesn’t say much but rather express the qualities of Aerochrome film. You could consider it to be politically neutral, if such a term does exist. During our lecture, Mosse had spoken, he mentioned the fact that he had left the subtitles of a lullaby out of a video piece in his installation work as part of ‘The Enclave’. If I remember correctly the lullaby mentions a sentence like this “look in the bushes and you’ll find bones”. I believe including subtitles will inform the viewer of the horrors that exist in The Congo and thus allows the Artist to inform the viewer more without the work becoming depoliticised. This was a choice and I believe a risk lost.

This also comes back to what Mosse had said during his interview with Anthony Hobbs in St. Catherine’s Church on the 27th of January 2014, the quote is as follows,

“A political view in art becomes propaganda” (Mosse R, 2014).

This quote then made me question whether his images had any true integrity or risk in them.

In my opinion, it should have taken a political view. As quoted by Mosse and stated by the International Rescue Committee in a report (Rescue, 2007), that over 5million people have died from 1998 – 2007 from war related causes. Not taking a side can be considered a said in itself.

The trouble with a lot of politically motivated art is a failure of nerve. Artists who produce work that they know is not favoured by our established regime are not necessarily taking risks, since they can forecast the results. Truly taking a risk means not knowing what’s going to happen in the end by Joe Lewis. (Kester 1995)

I do agree however, as an artist one must find an alternative way to document and produce work as compared to a photojournalist who just documents things the way they are. That being said, it does not mean we cannot take a stance or a view point in our work. If one was to represent the Congo, you could not easily do so. With the death toll said to be around 5.4million (rescue, 2007), mass rape, child soldiers and so on, it seems you are either for it, against it or simply doing what a photojournalist does and documents it. I always thought an artist is supposed to bring the viewer on a deeper, more meaningful journey with their work. Is it not too easy to take a photo and display it with video and lights? When an artist starts to become selective about their audience and their interests, they will, in my opinion, begin to lose a certain quality. The quality that allows us to takes risks, produce work based on our interest, based on the things we care about and that mean a lot to us. When we become too selective, our work becomes narrow. This is because of the ‘Reputation Economy’ that is the art world. I still acknowledge that there are artists out there that operate on their terms and not the terms of the economy.

 

One could take the view that by taking photographs, Mosse, through his art, brought a particular attention to the Congo. He focused the outside world upon its brutalities through the medium of his distinctive photography. In this way Mosse sets himself apart from the journalist who want to tell a story, even though it is questionable whether journalist can work without taking a position on the subjects of their stories.

What effect does being in a place over time have on the work that an artist produces there?

This question can only be answered by artists who have spent time in a place different to the one they grew up in or have come accustomed to. In that case, I put the question again to Fiona Whelan.

Jonathan Myers (Me):  What effect does being in a place over time have on the work that you as an artist produce there?

Fiona Whelan: Most artist funding for project based work is limited to periods of less than a year. For collaborative practice, developing relationships becomes a core part of the work which takes time, particularly when working across sector, discipline and knowledge, time is needed to generate understandings of where others are coming from, their motivations, intentions etc. I have been fortunate that I have been in a position to develop an ideas led practice in Rialto that has not been funding driven and can respond to the context, to the relationships and to my own ideas having listened and learned over time. So often artists are brought in to work on a project but there is limited funding afterwards to collectively explore learning and to critique and evaluate and built upon a common experience. For me, I have sustained a decade in one context which means work has developed over many years and can have many layers to it that have meaning for all those involved. I have been able to be present for the aftermath of a project which is not often afforded to the artist which has offered potential to keep building on previous work and to influence new directions. My presence has also had an impact on creating sustainable structures in the context to allow practices to continue beyond a specific artist led project. 

Conclusion

To question whether work holds integrity, how we as westerners produce work influenced by conflict in Africa or anywhere else in the wold is something we must. Just like this essay, we need to questions things. Even the things that are favoured by the large majority. Art shouldn’t be something that just sits on a pedestal. It needs to take a side because it always has something powerful to say and it can evoke great change around the world. Being neutral is a political position. The Enclave and Infra tried something different. It was very unique in look but conflict art itself is not. The use of an old medium was a really good idea and it paid off in terms of uniqueness in the Photographs published in Infra but I don’t believe it was risky enough to challenge the situation in the Congo and how we as westerners view it. Of course I understand it is hard to assess if art challenges or changes perspectives is this will always remain an issue. We cannot fear marginalisation from main stream art when producing work. Integrity holds merit and art hold power.

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Mosse, RM, 2012. Infra: Photographs by Richard Mosse. 1st ed. USA: Aperture/Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting.

Mosse, RM, (2014). Richard Mosse ‘Enclave’. In Interview with Richard Mosse. St. Catherine’s Church, 27/01/2014. NCAD: Jonathan Myers. 106/7.

Mosse, RM, (2014). Richard Mosse ‘Enclave’. In Interview with Richard Mosse. St. Catherine’s Church, 27/01/2014. NCAD: Jonathan Myers. 106/7.

Rescue. 2007. IRC Study Shows Congo’s Neglected Crisis Leaves 5.4 Million Dead; Peace Deal in N. Kivu, Increased Aid Critical to Reducing Death Toll. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.rescue.org/news/irc-study-shows-congos-neglected-crisis-leaves-54-million-dead-peace-deal-n-kivu-increased-aid–4331. [Accessed 19 March 14].

Kester, GH, 1995. Aesthetic Evangelists: Conversion and Empowerment in Contemporary Community Art. 1st ed. United States: Grant Kester.

Levinson, JL, 1998. Aesthetics and Ethics. 1st ed. United States of America: Cambridge University Press.